Vitamin A is one of the vitamins that are vital for maintaining health. Vitamin A is not only responsible for eye health, but also immune. Vitamin A deficiency can cause low immune response, fertility, disruption in growth, and low mental development.
Additionally disorders of the eye (xerophthalmia) and night blindness are some examples of lack of vitamin A. Xeroftalmia means dry eyes. Xeroftalmia arising from the drought that occurred in the mucous membrane (conjunctiva) and cornea (cornea) eyes. Xeroftalmia are not treated promptly can lead to blindness. While blindness is often referred to as night blindness, night blindness, or night blindness.
Who is susceptible to xerophthalmia? Babies who are not breastfed exclusively / not get a good milk substitute and quite good in terms of quantity and quality), babies born with low birth weight (LBW) is less than 2.5 kg, the children are malnourished, children suffering from infections (tuberculosis, measles, diarrhea, pneumonia), children less / rarely eat foods that contain vitamin A. In addition to infants and children, pregnant and lactating women are also susceptible to xerophthalmia.
One effort to prevent vitamin A deficiency is to eat foods that contain vitamin A, such as vegetable (carotene), animal (retinol). Green leafy vegetables (kale, spinach, papaya, etc.), fruits are colored orange (carrots, papaya), milk, meat, liver, eggs. Vitamin A can also be found in supplements, such as milk powder, capsule of vitamin A.
According to the findings of experts under the coordination of WHO (2000) and meetings dikoorinasi by IVACG (International Vitamin A Consultative Group), the recommended vitamin A are as follows:
Infants 0 to 6 months are as much as 3 X 50.000IU.
Infants 6 to 11 months is as much as 100,000 IU (blue capsule).
Infants 12 to 59 months is as much 200.0000 IU (red capsules.
Mother during childbirth is of 400,000 IU (IU 200.0000 2X on different days).
Mothers after childbirth period (there is also a possibility that some pregnant) is equal to 10,000 IU / day or 25,000 IU / week.
Xeroftalmia means dry eyes. Xeroftalmia arising from the drought that occurred in the mucous membrane (conjunctiva) and cornea (cornea) eyes. Xeroftalmia are not treated promptly can lead to blindness. Xerophthalmia caused by lack of vitamin A in infants, children, pregnant women, and breastfeeding.
Blindness occurs gradually. Thus stages:
Night blindness (XN)
Also called night blindness. No abnormalities of the eye (the eye looks normal), it’s just being decreased vision at dusk, or can not see in poorly lit environments. How to detect it? If the child is able to walk, he often hit or hit objects that are in front of him. If the child can not walk, it’s rather difficult to detect. Usually the child will live memojok and do not see the object in front of him. With vitamin A supplementation is true, then the vision will be improved within 2 to 4 days. But if left unchecked, it will evolve into the next stage.
Conjunctival xerosis (X1A)
Mucous membrane or the whites of the eyes appear dry, wrinkles, and pigmented with permuikaan making it look rough and dull. Eyes will appear dry or changed to brown.